Hybrid Solar Eclipses with Durations Exceeding 01m 30s

-3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE )

Introduction

Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon's penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth's surface thereby producing an eclipse. Not all New Moons result in a solar eclipse because the Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's about the Sun. Consequently, the Moon's shadows miss Earth at most New Moon's. Nevertheless, there are 2 to 5 solar eclipses every calendar year. There are four types of solar eclipses: partial, annular, total and hybrid[1]. For more information, see Basic Solar Eclipse Geometry.


Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE)

During the 10 Millennium period -3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE[2]), Earth will experience 23740 solar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Solar Eclipses: -3999 - 6000
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 23740100.0%
PartialP 8383 35.3%
AnnularA 7881 33.2%
TotalT 6326 26.6%
HybridH 1150 4.8%

Annular and total eclipses can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes during the 60th century CE appears in the following three tables (no Hybrids are included since all are central with two limits).

Annular and Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All 14207100.0%
Central (two limits) 13851 97.5%
Central (one limit) 180 1.3%
Non-Central (one limit) 176 1.2%
Annular Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Annular Eclipses 7881100.0%
Central (two limits) 7621 96.7%
Central (one limit) 131 1.7%
Non-Central (one limit) 129 1.6%
Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Total Eclipses 6326100.0%
Central (two limits) 6230 98.5%
Central (one limit) 49 0.8%
Non-Central (one limit) 47 0.7%

Long Hybrid Solar Eclipses

The longest central[3] solar eclipses of this period are:

          Longest Total   Solar Eclipse:    2186 Jul 16      Duration = 07m29s
          Longest Annular Solar Eclipse:    0150 Dec 07      Duration = 12m23s
          Longest Hybrid  Solar Eclipse:    5963 Aug 16      Duration = 01m52s

Long Hybrid Solar Eclipses are relatively rare. The following catalog lists concise details and local circumstances for all Hybrid Solar Eclipses with durations exceeding 01m 30s. The Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses contains a detailed description and explanation of each item listed in the catalog. For eclipses from -1999 to +3000, the Catalog Number in the first column serves as a link to a global map of Earth showing the geographic visibility of each eclipse. The date and time of the eclipse are given at the instant of greatest eclipse[4] in Terrestrial Dynamical Time. The Saros Number in the sixth column links to a table listing all eclipses in the Saros series. The Key to Solar Eclipse Maps explains the features plotted on each map.

The data presented here are based in part on the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.



Catalog of Long Hybrid Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000


                      TD of
Catalog  Calendar   Greatest          Luna Saros Ecl.           Ecl.                Sun Sun  Path Central
Number     Date      Eclipse     ΔT    Num  Num  Type  Gamma    Mag.   Lat.   Long. Alt Azm Width   Dur.
                                  s                                      °      °    °    °   km

----- -3890 Aug 07  16:12:50  86400 -72843  -46   H3  -0.1909  1.0169  12.8N  65.7W  79  11   59  01m46s
----- -3731 Jul 20  19:06:07  86400 -70877  -43   H3   0.0502  1.0171  27.0N 108.8W  87 173   59  01m42s
----- -3572 Jul 02  22:28:00  86400 -68911  -40   H3   0.0569  1.0166  26.0N 160.1W  87 177   57  01m41s
----- -3413 Jun 16  02:07:25  84484 -66945  -37   H   -0.1568  1.0152  10.9N 140.0E  81 340   53  01m33s
----- -3218 Dec 13  12:42:04  78287 -64527  -29   H    0.2311  1.0155   6.8S  42.8W  77 188   55  01m38s
----- -3098 Jul 11  21:19:14  74613 -63048  -23   H    0.0302  1.0156  25.6N 168.7E  88 171   54  01m34s
----- -3080 Jul 22  04:52:22  74066 -62825  -23   H   -0.0217  1.0161  22.9N  54.4E  89 355   55  01m39s
----- -3062 Aug 02  12:35:25  73522 -62602  -23   H   -0.0659  1.0161  19.7N  62.8W  86   0   55  01m41s
----- -3044 Aug 12  20:27:59  72980 -62379  -23   H   -0.1028  1.0161  16.0N 177.1E  84   5   55  01m42s
----- -3026 Aug 24  04:31:07  72439 -62156  -23   H   -0.1318  1.0159  12.0N  53.9E  83   8   55  01m40s

----- -3011 May 11  20:47:06  72000 -61974  -20   H2  -0.2350  1.0169   3.4S 170.5E  76 344   59  01m47s
----- -3008 Sep 03  12:43:53  71901 -61933  -23   H   -0.1533  1.0159   7.8N  71.9W  81  12   55  01m39s
----- -2990 Sep 14  21:06:11  71365 -61710  -23   H   -0.1675  1.0160   3.5N 159.6E  80  15   55  01m38s
----- -2972 Sep 25  05:35:09  70830 -61487  -23   H   -0.1768  1.0164   1.1S  29.3E  80  17   57  01m39s
----- -2954 Oct 06  14:12:24  70298 -61264  -23   H2  -0.1798  1.0172   5.6S 103.0W  80  18   60  01m42s
----- -2766 Aug 30  06:07:36  64870 -58940  -19   H   -0.3642  1.0143   3.7S   4.5W  69  11   53  01m31s
----- -2411 Feb 08  21:57:28  55225 -54556   -8   H    0.0037  1.0154  20.4S  85.6E  90 163   53  01m35s
----- -2103 Jul 21  11:42:44  47462 -50741   12   H   -0.3919  1.0140   0.8N 162.4W  67   9   52  01m32s
----- -2093 Jan 05  03:24:24  47234 -50624   -2   H    0.3247  1.0150   5.1S  30.3W  71 186   54  01m36s
00363 -1851 Jun 25  00:33:02  41558 -47625    7   H2  -0.5598  1.0145  10.4S  10.6W  56 349   60  01m34s

01275 -1467 Nov 04  13:16:02  33305 -42871   29   H2   0.2581  1.0164   2.9N 121.3E  75 195   58  01m39s
01669 -1297 Sep 17  20:33:36  29948 -40770   33   H3   0.0674  1.0168  10.8N   2.6W  86 197   58  01m40s
02068 -1138 Aug 30  23:28:43  26968 -38804   36   H3   0.0932  1.0168  18.0N  56.9W  85 206   58  01m32s
02448 -0979 Aug 13  02:47:53  24145 -36838   39   H3  -0.2387  1.0168   4.5N 123.0W  76  10   59  01m48s
03183 -0661 Jul 09  10:36:00  18910 -32906   45   H3  -0.4659  1.0146   4.3S 100.3E  62 358   56  01m38s
03748 -0437 Dec 17  10:19:56  15537 -30130   54   H3   0.1286  1.0173  16.2S  91.0E  83 190   60  01m45s
03791 -0419 Dec 27  19:00:22  15293 -29907   54   H    0.1333  1.0160  16.2S  39.4W  82 185   55  01m39s
03833 -0400 Jan 08  03:36:41  15052 -29684   54   H    0.1409  1.0152  15.1S 168.9W  82 180   53  01m35s
03875 -0382 Jan 18  12:05:58  14815 -29461   54   H    0.1538  1.0147  12.9S  63.2E  81 176   51  01m33s
03883 -0379 May 13  05:25:04  14772 -29420   51   H3  -0.4803  1.0155   9.8S 169.2E  61 338   60  01m34s

03916 -0364 Jan 29  20:27:34  14581 -29238   54   H    0.1722  1.0144   9.5S  63.3W  80 172   50  01m31s
03955 -0346 Feb 09  04:40:17  14351 -29015   54   H    0.1973  1.0142   5.1S 172.0E  79 169   50  01m30s
04023 -0316 Jul 04  10:53:21  13970 -28639   70   H3  -0.5847  1.0137  12.0S  69.4E  54   8   58  01m30s
04029 -0314 Nov 07  18:59:06  13941 -28610   57   H3  -0.3363  1.0168  34.7S  54.9W  70  15   61  01m30s
04045 -0307 Dec 18  23:08:59  13853 -28522   56   H    0.3218  1.0156   5.0S 106.6W  71 188   57  01m38s
04192 -0241 Jun 15  13:05:26  13066 -27712   62   H2   0.1836  1.0160  34.0N  36.8E  79 181   56  01m34s
04522 -0100 May 17  10:37:31  11489 -25969   65   H2  -0.1912  1.0170   8.4N  70.5E  79 340   59  01m44s
05960  0508 Sep 11  02:53:05   5576 -18445   91   H3   0.0826  1.0173   8.6N 160.3E  85 198   59  01m45s
06855  0881 Mar 04  03:08:22   2336 -13838  102   H2  -0.3624  1.0167  25.1S 152.5E  69 341   61  01m35s
07217  1040 Feb 15  06:17:48   1389 -11872  105   H2   0.1916  1.0169   1.0S  90.2E  79 154   59  01m35s

07475  1144 Jul 02  19:15:50    913 -10581  103   H   -0.3949  1.0145   0.8S 104.9W  67   1   54  01m39s
07612  1199 Jan 28  09:05:27    745  -9906  108   H2   0.0033  1.0174  16.2S  50.6E  90 156   60  01m45s
07686  1228 Jan 08  22:42:54    659  -9548  109   H3  -0.0068  1.0176  21.6S 155.0W  89 348   60  01m40s
07731  1246 Jan 19  07:20:33    605  -9325  109   H   -0.0150  1.0166  19.6S  76.3E  89 342   57  01m34s
07978  1350 Nov 30  07:34:51    374  -8028  112   H3   0.2227  1.0166  10.3S  68.8E  77 191   58  01m42s
08141  1423 Jul 08  00:48:40    263  -7130  117   H2  -0.1158  1.0161  15.0N 169.6E  83   4   55  01m45s
08269  1480 Dec 01  20:30:38    196  -6420  114   H2   0.4218  1.0155   1.5N 124.0W  65 189   58  01m37s
08459  1564 Jun 08  22:26:49    129  -5387  120   H2   0.1253  1.0174  30.8N 155.5W  83 185   60  01m44s
08800  1705 May 22  19:55:06      8  -3644  123   Hm  -0.1525  1.0147  12.2N 117.0W  81 343   51  01m32s
09104  1825 Dec 09  20:21:45      9  -2153  139   H2   0.5296  1.0148   9.2N 127.4W  58 180   60  01m34s


Catalog of Long Hybrid Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000


                      TD of
Catalog  Calendar   Greatest          Luna Saros Ecl.           Ecl.                Sun Sun  Path Central
Number     Date      Eclipse     ΔT    Num  Num  Type  Gamma    Mag.   Lat.   Long. Alt Azm Width   Dur.
                                  s                                      °      °    °    °   km

09538  2013 Nov 03  12:47:36     67    171  143   H3   0.3272  1.0159   3.5N  11.7W  71 192   58  01m40s
09900  2172 Oct 17  16:01:36    341   2137  146   H3  -0.1484  1.0174  17.3S  66.7W  81  28   60  01m34s
10430  2386 Apr 29  12:32:25    972   4778  154   H2  -0.5483  1.0146  18.1S   2.8E  57 347   60  01m30s
11817  2967 Jul 28  13:27:22   4049  11967  161   H3  -0.4892  1.0147  10.4S   7.0W  61   8   58  01m37s
-----  3022 Feb 23  01:36:38   4445  12642  166   H    0.1817  1.0150   0.0N 174.5E  80 165   52  01m32s
-----  3051 Feb 03  15:09:48   4663  13000  167   H3  -0.1910  1.0172  26.8S  20.5W  79 336   60  01m32s
-----  3192 Jan 07  08:58:32   5796  14743  170   H    0.4142  1.0149   2.2N  69.9E  66 179   56  01m36s
-----  3246 Aug 03  19:21:42   6267  15418  175   H   -0.2267  1.0136   4.0N  84.5W  77  10   48  01m31s
-----  3264 Aug 14  02:28:00   6427  15641  175   H2  -0.3029  1.0161   3.5S 167.5E  72  13   58  01m45s
-----  3594 Nov 25  12:20:00   9711  19726  197   H    0.3866  1.0140   2.1N  33.9E  67 185   52  01m31s

-----  3612 Dec 05  20:38:08   9910  19949  197   H    0.3608  1.0145   1.2S  90.6W  69 181   53  01m34s
-----  3630 Dec 17  05:04:24  10110  20172  197   H    0.3413  1.0151   3.2S 143.2E  70 177   55  01m37s
-----  3648 Dec 27  13:35:41  10313  20395  197   H2   0.3253  1.0159   4.3S  15.9E  71 172   58  01m41s
-----  3667 Jan 07  22:13:32  10518  20618  197   H2   0.3144  1.0171   4.2S 112.8W  72 168   62  01m45s
-----  4349 Oct 26  10:12:49  19746  29063  210   H3   0.4505  1.0159  11.8N 116.7E  63 205   60  01m32s
-----  4563 May 07  06:30:10  23222  31704  218   Hm   0.0897  1.0163  22.1N 177.8E  85 170   56  01m38s
-----  4712 Nov 04  19:01:26  25824  33553  235   H3   0.4688  1.0150  12.0N   3.9E  62 191   58  01m35s
-----  5348 Aug 30  13:50:22  38431  41417  247   H3  -0.0486  1.0162   4.8N 133.5E  87  16   56  01m43s
-----  5471 Jul 24  04:13:56  41155  42937  250   H3   0.0197  1.0169  20.1N  67.9W  89 197   58  01m40s
-----  5562 Mar 12  03:50:08  43224  44058  255   H2  -0.0381  1.0169   5.5S  55.1W  88 332   58  01m31s

-----  5576 Nov 27  12:01:28  43565  44240  258   H    0.0704  1.0151  17.2S 179.1E  86 195   52  01m32s
-----  5591 Feb 20  17:25:32  43896  44416  256   H    0.0564  1.0162   7.8S 102.6E  87 165   55  01m38s
-----  5594 Dec 08  19:55:50  43984  44463  258   H    0.1151  1.0153  16.0S  63.2E  83 191   53  01m35s
-----  5612 Dec 19  03:58:11  44405  44686  258   H    0.1534  1.0155  14.3S  55.0W  81 186   54  01m38s
-----  5630 Dec 30  12:09:05  44829  44909  258   H    0.1854  1.0156  12.1S 175.6W  79 182   55  01m40s
-----  5649 Jan 09  20:26:37  45254  45132  258   H    0.2121  1.0158   9.4S  61.9E  78 178   56  01m42s
-----  5663 Sep 28  10:34:52  45603  45314  261   H2   0.0421  1.0166   0.9S 148.9W  88 197   57  01m44s
-----  5667 Jan 21  04:51:58  45681  45355  258   H2   0.2328  1.0163   6.2S  62.9W  77 174   58  01m44s
-----  5685 Jan 31  13:23:03  46111  45578  258   H2   0.2492  1.0170   2.7S 170.6E  76 170   60  01m47s
-----  5804 Sep 01  08:19:56  49009  47057  264   H2   0.0025  1.0166   7.0N  98.8W  90 201   57  01m35s

-----  5963 Aug 16  13:17:57  52998  49023  267   H2  -0.1291  1.0175   5.2N 157.1W  83  14   60  01m52s


Calendar

The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates. The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions ). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..


Predictions

The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.


Footnotes

[1] Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. (See: Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses)

[2] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

[3] Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon's shadow strikes the Earth's surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

[4] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon's shadow passes closest to the Earth's center. For total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path.


Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Dan McGlaun for extracting the individual eclipse maps from the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 for use in this catalog.

The Besselian elements used in the predictions were kindly provided by Jean Meeus. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"


Eclipse Links

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses

Ten Millennium Catalog of Long Solar Eclipses

Catalog of Solar Eclipse Saros Series

World Atlas of Solar Eclipse Paths

2007 May 11