Each line in the tables of the lunar eclipse catalog corresponds to a single lunar eclipse and provides concise parameters to characterize the eclipse. The calendar date and Dynamical Time of the instant of greatest eclipse are given along with the adopted value of ΔT. The lunation number (since 2000 Jan 06) and the Saros series are listed along with the eclipse type (N=Penumbral, P=Partial, or T=Total). The quincena solar eclipse parameter identifies the type of solar eclipse that precedes and/or succeeds a lunar eclipse. Gamma is the distance from the Moon's center to the axis of Earth's shadow cones at greatest eclipse, while the penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes are defined as the fraction of the Moon's diameter immersed in each shadow at that instant. The duration of the penumbral, partial, and total eclipse phases are given in minutes. Finally, the geographic latitude and longitude are given for the location where the Moon lies in the zenith at greatest eclipse. A more detailed description of each field in the tables appears in the Key below.
The data presented in the catalog were previously published in the Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.
 Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the center of the Moon passes closest to the axis of Earth's umbral shadow.
Column Heading Definition/Description 1 Catalog Sequential number of the eclipse in the catalog links to Number the figure published in the Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000. 2 Calendar Calendar Date at instant of Greatest Eclipse. Date Gregorian Calendar is used for dates after 1582 Oct 15. Julian Calendar is used for dates before 1582 Oct 04. 3 TD of Dynamical Time (TD) of Greatest Eclipse, the instant Greatest when the distance between the center of the Moon and the Eclipse axis or EarthÕs umbral shadow cone reaches a minimum. 4 ΔT Delta T (ΔT) is the arithmetic difference between Dynamical Time and Universal Time. It is a measure of the accumulated clock error due to the variable rotation period of Earth. 5 Luna Lunation Number is the number of synodic months since Num New Moon of 2000 Jan 06. The Brown Lunation Number can be determined by adding 953. 6 Saros Saros series number of eclipse. Num (Each eclipse in a Saros is separated by an interval of 18 years 11.3 days.) 7 Ecl. Eclipse Type where: Type N = Penumbral Lunar Eclipse. P = Partial Lunar Eclipse (in umbra). T = Total Lunar Eclipse (in umbra). Second character in Eclipse Type: "m" = Middle eclipse of Saros series. "+" = Central total eclipse (Moon's center passes north of shadow axis). "-" = Central total eclipse (Moon's center passes south of shadow axis). "x" = Total penumbral lunar eclipse. "b" = Saros series begins (first penumbral eclipse in series). "e" = Saros series ends (last penumbral eclipse in series). 8 QSE Quincena Solar Eclipse Parameter identifies the type of solar eclipse that precedes and/or succeeds a lunar eclipse. Solar eclipse types: p = partial solar eclipse (MoonÕs penumbral shadow traverses Earth). a = annular solar eclipse (MoonÕs antumbral shadow traverses Earth). t = total solar eclipse (MoonÕs umbral shadow traverses Earth). h = hybrid solar eclipse (MoonÕs umbral and antumbral shadows traverse different parts of Earth; also known as an annular-total eclipse). 9 Gamma Distance from the center of the shadow cone axis to the center of the Moon (in units of Earth's equatorial radii) at the instant of greatest eclipse. 10 Pen. Penumbral magnitude is the fraction of the Moon's diameter Mag. immersed in the penumbra at the instant of greatest eclipse. (equal to the distance measured from the edge of the penumbral shadow to the edge of the Moon deepest in the penumbra). 11 Umb. Umbral magnitude is the fraction of the Moon's diameter Mag. immersed in the umbra at the instant of greatest eclipse. (equal to the distance measured from the edge of the umbral shadow to the edge of the Moon deepest in the umbra). 12 Eclipse Phase Duration of penumbral phase of a lunar eclipse; equal to Duration the time interval between first and last contact of the Moon Pen. with the penumbral shadow (= P4 - P1). 13 Eclipse Phase Duration of parial phase of a lunar eclipse; equal to Duration the time interval between first and last contact of the Moon Par. with the umbral shadow (= U4 - U1). 14 Eclipse Phase Duration of total phase of a lunar eclipse; equal to Duration the time interval between second and third contact of the Moon Tot. with the umbral shadow (= U3 - U2).
The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).
The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:
A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.
Special thanks to Jean Meeus for providing the Besselian elements used in the lunar eclipse predictions.
All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.
Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:
"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"