Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon's penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth's surface thereby producing an eclipse. Not all New Moons result in a solar eclipse because the Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's about the Sun. Consequently, the Moon's shadows miss Earth at most New Moon's. Nevertheless, there are 2 to 5 solar eclipses every calendar year. There are four types of solar eclipses: partial, annular, total and hybrid[1]. For more information, see Basic Solar Eclipse Geometry.

During the 10 century period -2999 to -2000 ( 3000 BCE to 2001 BCE[2]), Earth experienced 2362 solar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Solar Eclipses: -2999 - -2000 | |||

Eclipse Type | Symbol | Number | Percent |

All Eclipses | - | 2362 | 100.0% |

Partial | P | 841 | 35.6% |

Annular | A | 806 | 34.1% |

Total | T | 646 | 27.3% |

Hybrid | H | 69 | 2.9% |

Annular and total eclipses can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes during the 21st century BCE appears in the following three tables (no Hybrids are included since all are central with two limits).

Annular and Total Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All | 1452 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 1409 | 97.0% |

Central (one limit) | 22 | 1.5% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 21 | 1.4% |

Annular Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All Annular Eclipses | 806 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 774 | 96.0% |

Central (one limit) | 17 | 2.1% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 15 | 1.9% |

Total Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All Total Eclipses | 646 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 635 | 98.3% |

Central (one limit) | 5 | 0.8% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 6 | 0.9% |

The longest central[3] solar eclipses of this period are:

Longest Total Solar Eclipse: -2230 May 17 Duration = 07m21s Longest Annular Solar Eclipse: -2000 Dec 16 Duration = 11m36s Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse: -2954 Oct 06 Duration = 01m42s

Long Total Solar Eclipses are relatively rare.
The following catalog lists concise details and local circumstances for all **
Total Solar Eclipses** with durations exceeding **06m 00s**.
The Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses contains a detailed description and explanation of each item listed in the catalog.
For eclipses from -1999 to +3000, the *Catalog Number* in the first column serves as a link to a global map of Earth showing the geographic visibility of each eclipse.
The date and time of the eclipse are given at the instant of greatest eclipse[4] in Terrestrial Dynamical Time.
The * Saros Number * in the sixth column links to a table listing all eclipses in the Saros series.
The Key to Solar Eclipse Maps explains the features plotted on each map.

The data presented here are based in part on the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.

TD of Catalog Calendar Greatest Luna Saros Ecl. Ecl. Sun Sun Path Central Number Date Eclipse ΔT Num Num Type Gamma Mag. Lat. Long. Alt Azm Width Dur. s ° ° ° ° km ----- -2983 May 02 18:05:38 71168 -61628 -29 T -0.3999 1.0771 14.3S 144.1W 66 330 270 06m11s ----- -2965 May 14 01:25:21 70634 -61405 -29 T -0.4758 1.0775 15.0S 104.3E 62 332 282 06m18s ----- -2947 May 24 08:47:23 70103 -61182 -29 T -0.5497 1.0770 16.3S 8.2W 57 335 294 06m22s ----- -2938 Jun 13 15:53:22 69837 -61070 -10 T -0.6796 1.0677 22.8S 124.4W 47 351 301 06m04s ----- -2929 Jun 04 16:12:11 69573 -60959 -29 T -0.6218 1.0755 18.5S 121.7W 51 337 308 06m21s ----- -2920 Jun 23 23:25:39 69308 -60847 -10 T -0.6137 1.0680 15.9S 117.2E 52 356 281 06m19s ----- -2911 Jun 14 23:40:38 69046 -60736 -29 T -0.6910 1.0731 21.5S 123.4E 46 341 325 06m14s ----- -2902 Jul 05 07:04:15 68782 -60624 -10 T -0.5527 1.0675 10.3S 1.9W 56 360 264 06m23s ----- -2896 Mar 02 16:48:56 68617 -60554 -26 T 0.2047 1.0644 4.2S 144.0W 78 168 215 06m02s ----- -2884 Jul 15 14:49:32 68257 -60401 -10 T -0.4969 1.0662 5.8S 121.9W 60 4 249 06m18s ----- -2878 Mar 14 00:28:06 68093 -60331 -26 T 0.2630 1.0686 2.7N 97.2E 75 165 232 06m18s ----- -2866 Jul 26 22:43:26 67735 -60178 -10 T -0.4481 1.0644 2.6S 116.4E 63 9 235 06m05s ----- -2860 Mar 24 08:01:29 67571 -60108 -26 T 0.3264 1.0723 10.1N 20.8W 71 163 248 06m27s ----- -2842 Apr 04 15:30:24 67051 -59885 -26 T 0.3939 1.0751 18.1N 138.1W 67 161 264 06m27s ----- -2824 Apr 14 22:55:34 66533 -59662 -26 T 0.4651 1.0771 26.6N 105.1E 62 159 280 06m19s ----- -2806 Apr 26 06:19:00 66017 -59439 -26 T 0.5378 1.0781 35.3N 11.4W 57 158 298 06m04s ----- -2787 Apr 26 06:46:00 65476 -59204 -16 T -0.1303 1.0655 2.6S 6.4W 82 342 216 06m00s ----- -2638 Apr 28 18:06:10 61307 -57361 -4 T -0.6134 1.0751 30.2S 176.0E 52 340 306 06m06s ----- -2620 May 09 01:26:48 60812 -57138 -4 T -0.5376 1.0776 21.4S 59.6E 57 343 296 06m38s ----- -2602 May 20 08:49:22 60319 -56915 -4 T -0.4629 1.0790 13.2S 56.6W 62 346 287 07m02s ----- -2584 May 30 16:12:40 59827 -56692 -4 T -0.3883 1.0794 5.5S 172.3W 67 349 278 07m17s ----- -2566 Jun 10 23:40:09 59338 -56469 -4 T -0.3172 1.0789 1.5N 71.8E 72 352 269 07m21s ----- -2548 Jun 21 07:10:23 58851 -56246 -4 T -0.2484 1.0776 7.6N 44.2W 76 356 259 07m14s ----- -2530 Jul 02 14:47:31 58366 -56023 -4 T -0.1852 1.0754 12.8N 161.0W 79 0 249 06m59s ----- -2512 Jul 12 22:30:02 57883 -55800 -4 T -0.1267 1.0726 16.8N 81.5E 83 5 238 06m38s ----- -2494 Jul 24 06:19:46 57402 -55577 -4 T -0.0742 1.0692 19.6N 37.3W 86 9 226 06m12s ----- -2443 May 02 13:44:20 56058 -54949 -1 T 0.3937 1.0807 28.3N 165.6W 67 148 281 06m02s ----- -2425 May 13 21:06:08 55584 -54726 -1 T 0.3173 1.0817 28.4N 83.9E 71 150 277 06m12s ----- -2407 May 24 04:28:46 55113 -54503 -1 T 0.2417 1.0818 28.2N 26.6W 76 154 271 06m20s ----- -2389 Jun 04 11:53:19 54644 -54280 -1 T 0.1678 1.0810 27.6N 137.5W 80 158 265 06m27s ----- -2371 Jun 14 19:21:00 54176 -54057 -1 T 0.0964 1.0793 26.4N 110.7E 84 162 257 06m32s ----- -2353 Jun 26 02:52:38 53711 -53834 -1 T 0.0285 1.0768 24.5N 2.4W 88 168 249 06m33s ----- -2335 Jul 06 10:30:05 53247 -53611 -1 Tm -0.0345 1.0735 21.9N 117.3W 88 351 239 06m30s ----- -2317 Jul 17 18:13:42 52786 -53388 -1 T -0.0918 1.0696 18.8N 125.8E 85 356 228 06m21s ----- -2302 Apr 04 11:07:07 52411 -53206 2 T -0.3933 1.0774 24.5S 118.5W 67 340 271 06m24s ----- -2299 Jul 28 02:03:33 52327 -53165 -1 T -0.1436 1.0653 15.0N 6.7E 82 0 216 06m06s ----- -2284 Apr 14 18:36:13 51953 -52983 2 T -0.3237 1.0799 16.2S 124.4E 71 341 272 06m50s ----- -2266 Apr 26 02:01:36 51497 -52760 2 T -0.2507 1.0816 7.9S 8.3E 75 342 271 07m09s ----- -2248 May 06 09:26:04 51044 -52537 2 T -0.1771 1.0823 0.2N 107.3W 80 344 269 07m20s ----- -2230 May 17 16:47:47 50592 -52314 2 T -0.1011 1.0821 8.2N 138.1E 84 346 266 07m21s ----- -2212 May 28 00:11:44 50142 -52091 2 Tm -0.0272 1.0809 15.6N 23.6E 89 348 261 07m13s ----- -2194 Jun 08 07:35:59 49694 -51868 2 T 0.0465 1.0789 22.6N 90.2W 87 172 255 06m56s ----- -2176 Jun 18 15:04:32 49249 -51645 2 T 0.1161 1.0761 28.8N 155.8E 83 176 248 06m33s ----- -2158 Jun 29 22:35:05 48805 -51422 2 T 0.1837 1.0724 34.1N 42.4E 79 180 239 06m04s ----- -2143 Mar 17 15:40:07 48444 -51240 5 T 0.3072 1.0741 7.3N 142.3E 72 152 251 06m03s ----- -2125 Mar 28 23:17:08 48004 -51017 5 T 0.2436 1.0769 7.9N 26.6E 76 151 256 06m10s ----- -2107 Apr 08 06:50:25 47566 -50794 5 T 0.1766 1.0790 8.7N 87.9W 80 150 259 06m17s ----- -2089 Apr 19 14:17:26 47130 -50571 5 T 0.1042 1.0803 9.3N 159.4E 84 151 260 06m23s ----- -2071 Apr 29 21:43:15 46696 -50348 5 Tm 0.0309 1.0807 9.7N 47.2E 88 153 260 06m30s ----- -2053 May 11 05:05:51 46264 -50125 5 T -0.0450 1.0802 9.7N 64.2W 87 333 259 06m35s

TD of Catalog Calendar Greatest Luna Saros Ecl. Ecl. Sun Sun Path Central Number Date Eclipse ΔT Num Num Type Gamma Mag. Lat. Long. Alt Azm Width Dur. s ° ° ° ° km ----- -2035 May 21 12:28:12 45834 -49902 5 T -0.1211 1.0788 9.2N 175.6W 83 336 256 06m39s ----- -2017 Jun 01 19:50:19 45406 -49679 5 T -0.1968 1.0764 8.0N 72.9E 79 340 252 06m40s

The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates. The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions ). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

- pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
- 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
- future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

[1] Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. (See: Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses)

[2] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

[3] Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon's shadow strikes the Earth's surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

[4] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon's shadow passes closest to the Earth's center. For total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path.

Special thanks to **Dan McGlaun** for extracting the individual eclipse maps from the
*Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000* for use in this catalog.

The Besselian elements used in the predictions were kindly provided by **Jean Meeus**.
All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.
Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in
*Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000*

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"