Hybrid Solar Eclipses with Durations Exceeding 01m 00s

4001 to 5000 ( 4001 CE to 5000 CE )


Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon's penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth's surface thereby producing an eclipse. Not all New Moons result in a solar eclipse because the Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's about the Sun. Consequently, the Moon's shadows miss Earth at most New Moon's. Nevertheless, there are 2 to 5 solar eclipses every calendar year. There are four types of solar eclipses: partial, annular, total and hybrid[1]. For more information, see Basic Solar Eclipse Geometry.

Solar Eclipses: 4001 to 5000

During the 10 century period 4001 to 5000 ( 4001 CE to 5000 CE[2]), Earth will experience 2360 solar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Solar Eclipses: 4001 - 5000
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 2360100.0%
PartialP 828 35.1%
AnnularA 821 34.8%
TotalT 653 27.7%
HybridH 58 2.5%

Annular and total eclipses can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes during the 50th century CE appears in the following three tables (no Hybrids are included since all are central with two limits).

Annular and Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All 1474100.0%
Central (two limits) 1442 97.8%
Central (one limit) 19 1.3%
Non-Central (one limit) 13 0.9%
Annular Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Annular Eclipses 821100.0%
Central (two limits) 795 96.8%
Central (one limit) 15 1.8%
Non-Central (one limit) 11 1.3%
Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Total Eclipses 653100.0%
Central (two limits) 647 99.1%
Central (one limit) 4 0.6%
Non-Central (one limit) 2 0.3%

Long Hybrid Solar Eclipses

The longest central[3] solar eclipses of this period are:

          Longest Total   Solar Eclipse:    4009 Aug 04      Duration = 07m12s
          Longest Annular Solar Eclipse:    4885 Jan 20      Duration = 11m08s
          Longest Hybrid  Solar Eclipse:    4563 May 07      Duration = 01m38s

Long Hybrid Solar Eclipses are relatively rare. The following catalog lists concise details and local circumstances for all Hybrid Solar Eclipses with durations exceeding 01m 00s. The Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses contains a detailed description and explanation of each item listed in the catalog. For eclipses from -1999 to +3000, the Catalog Number in the first column serves as a link to a global map of Earth showing the geographic visibility of each eclipse. The date and time of the eclipse are given at the instant of greatest eclipse[4] in Terrestrial Dynamical Time. The Saros Number in the sixth column links to a table listing all eclipses in the Saros series. The Key to Solar Eclipse Maps explains the features plotted on each map.

The data presented here are based in part on the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.

Catalog of Long Hybrid Solar Eclipses: 4001 to 5000

                      TD of
Catalog  Calendar   Greatest          Luna Saros Ecl.           Ecl.                Sun Sun  Path Central
Number     Date      Eclipse     ΔT    Num  Num  Type  Gamma    Mag.   Lat.   Long. Alt Azm Width   Dur.
                                  s                                      °      °    °    °   km

-----  4031 Nov 28  02:35:29  15091  25131  204   H    0.1148  1.0145  14.8S 157.6W  83 195   50  01m28s
-----  4068 Jun 13  10:42:43  15594  25583  209   H    0.4327  1.0131  48.6N  80.3E  64 169   50  01m07s
-----  4190 Nov 11  06:11:27  17340  27097  207   H   -0.2897  1.0154  34.2S 151.9E  73  11   55  01m26s
-----  4227 May 29  14:58:58  17880  27549  212   H   -0.2929  1.0129   4.6N  30.9E  73 357   47  01m26s
-----  4349 Oct 26  10:12:49  19746  29063  210   H3   0.4505  1.0159  11.8N 116.7E  63 205   60  01m32s
-----  4386 May 12  18:51:46  20321  29515  215   H    0.1248  1.0120  25.1N  21.4W  83 159   42  01m08s
-----  4545 Apr 25  22:25:51  22918  31481  218   H    0.0558  1.0106  16.8N  62.1W  87 167   37  01m05s
-----  4563 May 07  06:30:10  23222  31704  218   Hm   0.0897  1.0163  22.1N 177.8E  85 170   56  01m38s
-----  4712 Nov 04  19:01:26  25824  33553  235   H3   0.4688  1.0150  12.0N   3.9E  62 191   58  01m35s
-----  4722 Apr 21  09:54:58  25993  33670  221   H   -0.2827  1.0143   3.1S 146.3E  74 335   51  01m22s

-----  4730 Nov 16  02:46:43  26147  33776  235   H    0.4215  1.0096   6.3N 113.0W  65 188   36  01m03s
-----  4881 Apr 03  13:02:02  28920  35636  224   H    0.4894  1.0123  33.8N  95.5E  60 160   48  01m06s
-----  4889 Oct 29  06:53:16  29083  35742  238   H   -0.2628  1.0121  27.9S 172.8W  75  27   43  01m06s


The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates. The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions ). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..


The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.


[1] Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. (See: Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses)

[2] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

[3] Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon's shadow strikes the Earth's surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

[4] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon's shadow passes closest to the Earth's center. For total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path.


Special thanks to Dan McGlaun for extracting the individual eclipse maps from the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 for use in this catalog.

The Besselian elements used in the predictions were kindly provided by Jean Meeus. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"

Eclipse Links

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses

Ten Millennium Catalog of Long Solar Eclipses

Catalog of Solar Eclipse Saros Series

World Atlas of Solar Eclipse Paths

2007 May 11