Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon's penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth's surface thereby producing an eclipse. Not all New Moons result in a solar eclipse because the Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's about the Sun. Consequently, the Moon's shadows miss Earth at most New Moon's. Nevertheless, there are 2 to 5 solar eclipses every calendar year. There are four types of solar eclipses: partial, annular, total and hybrid[1]. For more information, see Basic Solar Eclipse Geometry.

During the 10 century period -0999 to 0000 ( 1000 BCE to 1 BCE[2]), Earth experienced 2373 solar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Solar Eclipses: -0999 - 0000 | |||

Eclipse Type | Symbol | Number | Percent |

All Eclipses | - | 2373 | 100.0% |

Partial | P | 857 | 36.1% |

Annular | A | 764 | 32.2% |

Total | T | 622 | 26.2% |

Hybrid | H | 130 | 5.5% |

Annular and total eclipses can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes during the 1st century BCE appears in the following three tables (no Hybrids are included since all are central with two limits).

Annular and Total Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All | 1386 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 1352 | 97.5% |

Central (one limit) | 14 | 1.0% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 20 | 1.4% |

Annular Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All Annular Eclipses | 764 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 743 | 97.3% |

Central (one limit) | 10 | 1.3% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 11 | 1.4% |

Total Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All Total Eclipses | 622 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 609 | 97.9% |

Central (one limit) | 4 | 0.6% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 9 | 1.4% |

The longest central[3] solar eclipses of this period are:

Longest Total Solar Eclipse: -0743 Jun 15 Duration = 07m28s Longest Annular Solar Eclipse: -0177 Dec 22 Duration = 12m08s Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse: -0979 Aug 13 Duration = 01m48s

Long Total Solar Eclipses are relatively rare.
The following catalog lists concise details and local circumstances for all **
Total Solar Eclipses** with durations exceeding **06m 00s**.
The Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses contains a detailed description and explanation of each item listed in the catalog.
For eclipses from -1999 to +3000, the *Catalog Number* in the first column serves as a link to a global map of Earth showing the geographic visibility of each eclipse.
The date and time of the eclipse are given at the instant of greatest eclipse[4] in Terrestrial Dynamical Time.
The * Saros Number * in the sixth column links to a table listing all eclipses in the Saros series.
The Key to Solar Eclipse Maps explains the features plotted on each map.

The data presented here are based in part on the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.

TD of Catalog Calendar Greatest Luna Saros Ecl. Ecl. Sun Sun Path Central Number Date Eclipse ΔT Num Num Type Gamma Mag. Lat. Long. Alt Azm Width Dur. s ° ° ° ° km 02439 -0983 Apr 30 20:47:10 24219 -36891 32 T 0.4466 1.0790 37.2N 40.6W 63 161 285 06m08s 02816 -0815 May 03 08:45:04 21399 -34813 54 T -0.6950 1.0754 29.9S 148.2E 46 344 338 06m13s 02857 -0797 May 14 16:11:28 21107 -34590 54 T -0.6224 1.0778 21.6S 31.1E 51 348 320 06m47s 02898 -0779 May 24 23:36:32 20817 -34367 54 T -0.5483 1.0792 13.9S 84.7W 57 351 305 07m12s 02939 -0761 Jun 05 07:01:07 20529 -34144 54 T -0.4737 1.0797 6.8S 160.5E 62 355 292 07m25s 02981 -0743 Jun 15 14:27:14 20242 -33921 54 T -0.4004 1.0792 0.7S 46.0E 66 359 279 07m28s 03024 -0725 Jun 26 21:55:33 19958 -33698 54 T -0.3288 1.0777 4.6N 68.2W 71 3 266 07m18s 03069 -0707 Jul 07 05:27:58 19676 -33475 54 T -0.2608 1.0755 8.7N 177.2E 75 8 253 07m00s 03113 -0689 Jul 18 13:03:42 19378 -33252 54 T -0.1957 1.0724 11.8N 62.3E 79 12 240 06m35s 03158 -0671 Jul 28 20:46:07 19075 -33029 54 T -0.1364 1.0688 13.6N 53.9W 82 17 226 06m07s 03377 -0585 Jun 09 02:19:58 17695 -31967 47 T -0.4268 1.0652 2.4S 137.2W 65 347 235 06m10s 03379 -0584 May 28 19:28:50 17680 -31955 57 T 0.3201 1.0798 38.2N 48.0W 71 158 271 06m04s 03425 -0567 Jun 19 09:42:08 17418 -31744 47 T -0.4997 1.0659 6.2S 110.5E 60 351 248 06m17s 03427 -0566 Jun 09 02:53:49 17403 -31732 57 T 0.2456 1.0790 36.2N 157.1W 76 164 263 06m15s 03471 -0549 Jun 30 17:07:35 17146 -31521 47 T -0.5701 1.0657 10.9S 3.2W 55 355 261 06m16s 03473 -0548 Jun 19 10:18:38 17131 -31509 57 T 0.1712 1.0772 33.3N 93.3E 80 169 254 06m22s 03516 -0531 Jul 11 00:38:17 16877 -31298 47 T -0.6366 1.0648 16.4S 119.0W 50 359 275 06m05s 03518 -0530 Jun 30 17:46:57 16863 -31286 57 T 0.1000 1.0748 29.6N 17.9W 84 175 244 06m25s 03563 -0512 Jul 11 01:18:21 16599 -31063 57 Tm 0.0320 1.0714 25.2N 130.6W 88 179 232 06m21s 03608 -0494 Jul 22 08:53:54 16339 -30840 57 T -0.0322 1.0674 20.2N 114.8E 88 4 220 06m11s 03644 -0479 Apr 09 01:53:28 16130 -30658 60 T -0.4515 1.0737 20.6S 132.2W 63 341 267 06m16s 03688 -0461 Apr 20 09:30:02 15877 -30435 60 T -0.3870 1.0760 12.8S 109.7E 67 343 266 06m42s 03732 -0443 Apr 30 17:02:20 15628 -30212 60 T -0.3188 1.0774 5.1S 7.1W 71 346 264 07m01s 03776 -0425 May 12 00:29:44 15382 -29989 60 T -0.2467 1.0782 2.4N 122.2W 76 349 260 07m12s 03818 -0407 May 22 07:55:23 15140 -29766 60 T -0.1732 1.0779 9.4N 123.7E 80 352 256 07m13s 03860 -0389 Jun 02 15:19:08 14902 -29543 60 T -0.0980 1.0769 15.9N 10.8E 84 355 250 07m04s 03902 -0371 Jun 12 22:43:10 14667 -29320 60 Tm -0.0234 1.0749 21.7N 101.3W 89 359 243 06m46s 03941 -0353 Jun 24 06:07:24 14435 -29097 60 T 0.0505 1.0721 26.7N 147.5E 87 184 235 06m22s 04176 -0248 May 04 12:53:34 13150 -27800 63 T 0.0902 1.0746 19.6N 37.7E 85 155 243 06m07s 04194 -0240 Jun 04 02:47:32 13055 -27700 72 T -0.5807 1.0641 13.6S 167.2W 54 357 258 06m08s 04215 -0231 May 26 03:01:25 12950 -27589 53 T -0.7246 1.0704 24.2S 159.1W 43 341 329 06m01s 04217 -0230 May 15 20:18:47 12939 -27577 63 Tm 0.0162 1.0742 18.8N 73.0W 89 161 241 06m16s 04235 -0222 Jun 15 10:08:27 12845 -27477 72 T -0.5047 1.0668 7.1S 79.6E 60 1 253 06m28s 04257 -0212 May 26 03:42:22 12730 -27354 63 T -0.0588 1.0729 17.3N 176.6E 87 342 237 06m23s 04276 -0204 Jun 25 17:33:02 12638 -27254 72 T -0.4309 1.0686 1.7S 33.7W 64 5 247 06m36s 04298 -0194 Jun 06 11:04:05 12524 -27131 63 T -0.1348 1.0707 14.9N 66.4E 82 346 232 06m26s 04317 -0186 Jul 07 01:01:07 12433 -27031 72 T -0.3594 1.0695 2.6N 147.2W 69 9 242 06m35s 04340 -0176 Jun 16 18:26:21 12321 -26908 63 T -0.2101 1.0678 11.5N 44.5W 78 351 226 06m23s 04360 -0168 Jul 17 08:34:21 12230 -26808 72 T -0.2917 1.0695 5.7N 98.6E 73 13 236 06m25s 04384 -0158 Jun 28 01:49:01 12120 -26685 63 T -0.2844 1.0639 7.3N 156.0W 74 355 218 06m13s 04404 -0150 Jul 28 16:13:20 12030 -26585 72 T -0.2286 1.0689 7.7N 16.7W 77 17 230 06m11s 04505 -0107 Apr 06 10:01:59 11566 -26057 66 Tm -0.0640 1.0684 1.7N 79.5E 86 343 223 06m10s 04548 -0089 Apr 17 17:40:32 11373 -25834 66 T -0.0015 1.0692 9.3N 38.0W 90 314 225 06m15s 04592 -0071 Apr 28 01:12:51 11182 -25611 66 T 0.0658 1.0694 16.8N 153.7W 86 166 226 06m13s 04637 -0053 May 09 08:41:04 10993 -25388 66 T 0.1361 1.0686 24.2N 92.2E 82 168 226 06m03s 04750 -0009 Jun 30 13:22:34 10538 -24842 75 T 0.1963 1.0753 35.1N 22.0E 78 176 249 06m14s

The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates. The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions ). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

- pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
- 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
- future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

[1] Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. (See: Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses)

[2] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

[3] Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon's shadow strikes the Earth's surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

[4] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon's shadow passes closest to the Earth's center. For total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path.

Special thanks to **Dan McGlaun** for extracting the individual eclipse maps from the
*Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000* for use in this catalog.

The Besselian elements used in the predictions were kindly provided by **Jean Meeus**.
All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.
Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in
*Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000*

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"