Total Solar Eclipses with Durations Exceeding 07m 00s

-3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE )

Introduction

Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon's penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth's surface thereby producing an eclipse. Not all New Moons result in a solar eclipse because the Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's about the Sun. Consequently, the Moon's shadows miss Earth at most New Moon's. Nevertheless, there are 2 to 5 solar eclipses every calendar year. There are four types of solar eclipses: partial, annular, total and hybrid[1]. For more information, see Basic Solar Eclipse Geometry.


Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE)

During the 10 Millennium period -3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE[2]), Earth will experience 23740 solar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Solar Eclipses: -3999 - 6000
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 23740100.0%
PartialP 8383 35.3%
AnnularA 7881 33.2%
TotalT 6326 26.6%
HybridH 1150 4.8%

Annular and total eclipses can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes during the 60th century CE appears in the following three tables (no Hybrids are included since all are central with two limits).

Annular and Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All 14207100.0%
Central (two limits) 13851 97.5%
Central (one limit) 180 1.3%
Non-Central (one limit) 176 1.2%
Annular Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Annular Eclipses 7881100.0%
Central (two limits) 7621 96.7%
Central (one limit) 131 1.7%
Non-Central (one limit) 129 1.6%
Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Total Eclipses 6326100.0%
Central (two limits) 6230 98.5%
Central (one limit) 49 0.8%
Non-Central (one limit) 47 0.7%

Long Total Solar Eclipses

The longest central[3] solar eclipses of this period are:

          Longest Total   Solar Eclipse:    2186 Jul 16      Duration = 07m29s
          Longest Annular Solar Eclipse:    0150 Dec 07      Duration = 12m23s
          Longest Hybrid  Solar Eclipse:    5963 Aug 16      Duration = 01m52s

Long Total Solar Eclipses are relatively rare. The following catalog lists concise details and local circumstances for all Total Solar Eclipses with durations exceeding 07m 00s. The Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses contains a detailed description and explanation of each item listed in the catalog. For eclipses from -1999 to +3000, the Catalog Number in the first column serves as a link to a global map of Earth showing the geographic visibility of each eclipse. The date and time of the eclipse are given at the instant of greatest eclipse[4] in Terrestrial Dynamical Time. The Saros Number in the sixth column links to a table listing all eclipses in the Saros series. The Key to Solar Eclipse Maps explains the features plotted on each map.

The data presented here are based in part on the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.



Catalog of Long Total Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000


                      TD of
Catalog  Calendar   Greatest          Luna Saros Ecl.           Ecl.                Sun Sun  Path Central
Number     Date      Eclipse     ΔT    Num  Num  Type  Gamma    Mag.   Lat.   Long. Alt Azm Width   Dur.
                                  s                                      °      °    °    °   km

----- -3753 Mar 28  05:45:29  86400 -71153  -50   T    0.0950  1.0805   4.5S  95.7E  85 164  261  07m09s
----- -3735 Apr 07  13:09:55  86400 -70930  -50   T    0.1674  1.0819   3.6N  17.9W  80 162  267  07m12s
----- -3717 Apr 18  20:32:36  86400 -70707  -50   T    0.2412  1.0823  11.9N 131.3W  76 161  272  07m06s
----- -2602 May 20  08:49:22  60319 -56915   -4   T   -0.4629  1.0790  13.2S  56.6W  62 346  287  07m02s
----- -2584 May 30  16:12:40  59827 -56692   -4   T   -0.3883  1.0794   5.5S 172.3W  67 349  278  07m17s
----- -2566 Jun 10  23:40:09  59338 -56469   -4   T   -0.3172  1.0789   1.5N  71.8E  72 352  269  07m21s
----- -2548 Jun 21  07:10:23  58851 -56246   -4   T   -0.2484  1.0776   7.6N  44.2W  76 356  259  07m14s
----- -2266 Apr 26  02:01:36  51497 -52760    2   T   -0.2507  1.0816   7.9S   8.3E  75 342  271  07m09s
----- -2248 May 06  09:26:04  51044 -52537    2   T   -0.1771  1.0823   0.2N 107.3W  80 344  269  07m20s
----- -2230 May 17  16:47:47  50592 -52314    2   T   -0.1011  1.0821   8.2N 138.1E  84 346  266  07m21s

----- -2212 May 28  00:11:44  50142 -52091    2   Tm  -0.0272  1.0809  15.6N  23.6E  89 348  261  07m13s
01289 -1460 Jun 22  05:54:44  33171 -42789   23   T   -0.2256  1.0776  10.4N 129.9W  77 349  257  07m04s
01330 -1442 Jul 03  13:27:32  32807 -42566   23   T   -0.2933  1.0760   6.9N 115.5E  73 353  257  07m05s
02103 -1124 May 28  23:13:30  26718 -38634   29   T   -0.4490  1.0804   5.8S  50.7W  63 341  288  07m03s
02148 -1106 Jun 09  06:37:49  26391 -38411   29   T   -0.5241  1.0788   8.9S 163.5W  58 345  297  07m04s
02898 -0779 May 24  23:36:32  20817 -34367   54   T   -0.5483  1.0792  13.9S  84.7W  57 351  305  07m12s
02939 -0761 Jun 05  07:01:07  20529 -34144   54   T   -0.4737  1.0797   6.8S 160.5E  62 355  292  07m25s
02981 -0743 Jun 15  14:27:14  20242 -33921   54   T   -0.4004  1.0792   0.7S  46.0E  66 359  279  07m28s
03024 -0725 Jun 26  21:55:33  19958 -33698   54   T   -0.3288  1.0777   4.6N  68.2W  71   3  266  07m18s
03069 -0707 Jul 07  05:27:58  19676 -33475   54   T   -0.2608  1.0755   8.7N 177.2E  75   8  253  07m00s

03732 -0443 Apr 30  17:02:20  15628 -30212   60   T   -0.3188  1.0774   5.1S   7.1W  71 346  264  07m01s
03776 -0425 May 12  00:29:44  15382 -29989   60   T   -0.2467  1.0782   2.4N 122.2W  76 349  260  07m12s
03818 -0407 May 22  07:55:23  15140 -29766   60   T   -0.1732  1.0779   9.4N 123.7E  80 352  256  07m13s
03860 -0389 Jun 02  15:19:08  14902 -29543   60   T   -0.0980  1.0769  15.9N  10.8E  84 355  250  07m04s
05057  0114 May 22  03:32:43   9318 -23322   78   T   -0.2684  1.0753   4.6N 165.8E  74 353  253  07m06s
05101  0132 Jun 01  10:57:16   9143 -23099   78   T   -0.1932  1.0775  10.9N  52.8E  79 357  255  07m14s
05145  0150 Jun 12  18:23:03   8970 -22876   78   T   -0.1187  1.0787  16.5N  59.7W  83   1  256  07m13s
05187  0168 Jun 23  01:48:53   8797 -22653   78   T   -0.0441  1.0792  21.3N 171.4W  88   6  256  07m03s
05543  0327 Jun 06  06:52:21   7295 -20687   81   Tm  -0.0413  1.0810  20.5N 106.6E  88 347  261  07m03s
05583  0345 Jun 16  14:18:48   7126 -20464   81   T   -0.1162  1.0811  17.0N   4.8W  83 352  263  07m17s

05623  0363 Jun 27  21:46:29   6956 -20241   81   T   -0.1899  1.0804  12.7N 117.1W  79 357  264  07m24s
05664  0381 Jul 08  05:17:09   6787 -20018   81   T   -0.2612  1.0788   7.6N 129.1E  75   1  264  07m22s
05705  0399 Jul 19  12:51:41   6617 -19795   81   T   -0.3290  1.0764   2.0N  13.7E  71   5  262  07m11s
06396  0681 May 23  07:58:17   3965 -16309   87   T   -0.3538  1.0797   1.2N  81.3E  69 345  274  07m10s
06440  0699 Jun 03  15:24:55   3785 -16086   87   T   -0.4291  1.0792   2.2S  31.3W  65 349  282  07m17s
06483  0717 Jun 13  22:52:28   3641 -15863   87   T   -0.5035  1.0779   6.5S 144.6W  60 353  291  07m15s
06526  0735 Jun 25  06:19:09   3497 -15640   87   T   -0.5781  1.0756  11.9S 101.7E  55 357  300  07m02s
07226  1044 May 29  16:06:22   1367 -11819  112   T   -0.5525  1.0775  11.1S  56.0W  56 359  300  07m12s
07270  1062 Jun 09  23:34:05   1278 -11596  112   T   -0.4793  1.0781   5.2S 170.1W  61   3  287  07m20s
07314  1080 Jun 20  07:00:13   1188 -11373  112   T   -0.4047  1.0779   0.2S  77.0E  66   7  275  07m18s

07359  1098 Jul 01  14:28:20   1098 -11150  112   T   -0.3320  1.0768   3.8N  35.8W  71  11  263  07m05s
09369  1937 Jun 08  20:41:02     24   -774  136   T   -0.2253  1.0751   9.9N 130.5W  77   0  250  07m04s
09410  1955 Jun 20  04:10:42     31   -551  136   T   -0.1528  1.0776  14.8N 117.0E  81   5  254  07m08s
09450  1973 Jun 30  11:38:41     44   -328  136   T   -0.0785  1.0792  18.8N   5.6E  86   9  256  07m04s
09847  2150 Jun 25  00:17:25    287   1861  139   T   -0.0910  1.0802  18.3N 178.0E  85 356  260  07m14s
09889  2168 Jul 05  07:45:23    330   2084  139   T   -0.1660  1.0807  13.2N  66.2E  81   0  264  07m26s
09933  2186 Jul 16  15:14:54    377   2307  139   T   -0.2396  1.0805   7.4N  46.6W  76   4  267  07m29s
09978  2204 Jul 27  22:44:32    425   2530  139   T   -0.3129  1.0793   1.0N 160.2W  72   8  269  07m22s
10022  2222 Aug 08  06:17:05    476   2753  139   T   -0.3837  1.0774   6.0S  84.8E  67  11  270  07m06s
10711  2504 Jun 14  01:31:03   1428   6239  145   T   -0.4278  1.0769   1.9S 167.1E  65 352  275  07m10s


Catalog of Long Total Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000


                      TD of
Catalog  Calendar   Greatest          Luna Saros Ecl.           Ecl.                Sun Sun  Path Central
Number     Date      Eclipse     ΔT    Num  Num  Type  Gamma    Mag.   Lat.   Long. Alt Azm Width   Dur.
                                  s                                      °      °    °    °   km

10752  2522 Jun 25  09:03:45   1506   6462  145   T   -0.4991  1.0769   6.6S  53.3E  60 356  287  07m12s
10793  2540 Jul 05  16:34:26   1585   6685  145   T   -0.5722  1.0760  12.4S  60.8W  55   1  300  07m04s
11564  2867 Jun 23  09:57:35   3371  10729  170   T   -0.4622  1.0766   4.1S  42.6E  62   6  279  07m10s
11611  2885 Jul 03  17:29:55   3488  10952  170   T   -0.3905  1.0777   0.1N  70.7W  67  10  272  07m11s
11658  2903 Jul 16  01:00:45   3608  11175  170   T   -0.3177  1.0780   3.4N 177.0E  71  14  265  07m04s
-----  3973 Jul 13  18:54:49  14304  24409  197   T   -0.2416  1.0769   7.3N  42.4W  76   4  256  07m12s
-----  3991 Jul 25  02:29:22  14545  24632  197   T   -0.3124  1.0781   1.1N 156.3W  72   7  266  07m18s
-----  4009 Aug 04  10:00:56  14788  24855  197   T   -0.3853  1.0785   5.9S  89.8E  67  11  274  07m12s
-----  4921 Aug 08  16:28:39  29688  36135  231   T   -0.1310  1.0772   7.7N  58.0E  83  12  252  07m03s


Calendar

The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates. The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions ). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..


Predictions

The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.


Footnotes

[1] Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. (See: Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses)

[2] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

[3] Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon's shadow strikes the Earth's surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

[4] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon's shadow passes closest to the Earth's center. For total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path.


Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Dan McGlaun for extracting the individual eclipse maps from the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 for use in this catalog.

The Besselian elements used in the predictions were kindly provided by Jean Meeus. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"


Eclipse Links

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses

Ten Millennium Catalog of Long Solar Eclipses

Catalog of Solar Eclipse Saros Series

World Atlas of Solar Eclipse Paths

2007 May 11