Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon's penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth's surface thereby producing an eclipse. Not all New Moons result in a solar eclipse because the Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's about the Sun. Consequently, the Moon's shadows miss Earth at most New Moon's. Nevertheless, there are 2 to 5 solar eclipses every calendar year. There are four types of solar eclipses: partial, annular, total and hybrid[1]. For more information, see Basic Solar Eclipse Geometry.

During the 10 Millennium period -3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 6000 CE[2]), Earth will experience 23740 solar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Solar Eclipses: -3999 - 6000 | |||

Eclipse Type | Symbol | Number | Percent |

All Eclipses | - | 23740 | 100.0% |

Partial | P | 8383 | 35.3% |

Annular | A | 7881 | 33.2% |

Total | T | 6326 | 26.6% |

Hybrid | H | 1150 | 4.8% |

Annular and total eclipses can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes during the 60th century CE appears in the following three tables (no Hybrids are included since all are central with two limits).

Annular and Total Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All | 14207 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 13851 | 97.5% |

Central (one limit) | 180 | 1.3% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 176 | 1.2% |

Annular Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All Annular Eclipses | 7881 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 7621 | 96.7% |

Central (one limit) | 131 | 1.7% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 129 | 1.6% |

Total Eclipses | ||

Classification | Number | Percent |

All Total Eclipses | 6326 | 100.0% |

Central (two limits) | 6230 | 98.5% |

Central (one limit) | 49 | 0.8% |

Non-Central (one limit) | 47 | 0.7% |

The longest central[3] solar eclipses of this period are:

Longest Total Solar Eclipse: 2186 Jul 16 Duration = 07m29s Longest Annular Solar Eclipse: 0150 Dec 07 Duration = 12m23s Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse: 5963 Aug 16 Duration = 01m52s

Long Total Solar Eclipses are relatively rare.
The following catalog lists concise details and local circumstances for all **
Total Solar Eclipses** with durations exceeding **07m 00s**.
The Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses contains a detailed description and explanation of each item listed in the catalog.
For eclipses from -1999 to +3000, the *Catalog Number* in the first column serves as a link to a global map of Earth showing the geographic visibility of each eclipse.
The date and time of the eclipse are given at the instant of greatest eclipse[4] in Terrestrial Dynamical Time.
The * Saros Number * in the sixth column links to a table listing all eclipses in the Saros series.
The Key to Solar Eclipse Maps explains the features plotted on each map.

The data presented here are based in part on the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.

TD of Catalog Calendar Greatest Luna Saros Ecl. Ecl. Sun Sun Path Central Number Date Eclipse ΔT Num Num Type Gamma Mag. Lat. Long. Alt Azm Width Dur. s ° ° ° ° km ----- -3753 Mar 28 05:45:29 86400 -71153 -50 T 0.0950 1.0805 4.5S 95.7E 85 164 261 07m09s ----- -3735 Apr 07 13:09:55 86400 -70930 -50 T 0.1674 1.0819 3.6N 17.9W 80 162 267 07m12s ----- -3717 Apr 18 20:32:36 86400 -70707 -50 T 0.2412 1.0823 11.9N 131.3W 76 161 272 07m06s ----- -2602 May 20 08:49:22 60319 -56915 -4 T -0.4629 1.0790 13.2S 56.6W 62 346 287 07m02s ----- -2584 May 30 16:12:40 59827 -56692 -4 T -0.3883 1.0794 5.5S 172.3W 67 349 278 07m17s ----- -2566 Jun 10 23:40:09 59338 -56469 -4 T -0.3172 1.0789 1.5N 71.8E 72 352 269 07m21s ----- -2548 Jun 21 07:10:23 58851 -56246 -4 T -0.2484 1.0776 7.6N 44.2W 76 356 259 07m14s ----- -2266 Apr 26 02:01:36 51497 -52760 2 T -0.2507 1.0816 7.9S 8.3E 75 342 271 07m09s ----- -2248 May 06 09:26:04 51044 -52537 2 T -0.1771 1.0823 0.2N 107.3W 80 344 269 07m20s ----- -2230 May 17 16:47:47 50592 -52314 2 T -0.1011 1.0821 8.2N 138.1E 84 346 266 07m21s ----- -2212 May 28 00:11:44 50142 -52091 2 Tm -0.0272 1.0809 15.6N 23.6E 89 348 261 07m13s 01289 -1460 Jun 22 05:54:44 33171 -42789 23 T -0.2256 1.0776 10.4N 129.9W 77 349 257 07m04s 01330 -1442 Jul 03 13:27:32 32807 -42566 23 T -0.2933 1.0760 6.9N 115.5E 73 353 257 07m05s 02103 -1124 May 28 23:13:30 26718 -38634 29 T -0.4490 1.0804 5.8S 50.7W 63 341 288 07m03s 02148 -1106 Jun 09 06:37:49 26391 -38411 29 T -0.5241 1.0788 8.9S 163.5W 58 345 297 07m04s 02898 -0779 May 24 23:36:32 20817 -34367 54 T -0.5483 1.0792 13.9S 84.7W 57 351 305 07m12s 02939 -0761 Jun 05 07:01:07 20529 -34144 54 T -0.4737 1.0797 6.8S 160.5E 62 355 292 07m25s 02981 -0743 Jun 15 14:27:14 20242 -33921 54 T -0.4004 1.0792 0.7S 46.0E 66 359 279 07m28s 03024 -0725 Jun 26 21:55:33 19958 -33698 54 T -0.3288 1.0777 4.6N 68.2W 71 3 266 07m18s 03069 -0707 Jul 07 05:27:58 19676 -33475 54 T -0.2608 1.0755 8.7N 177.2E 75 8 253 07m00s 03732 -0443 Apr 30 17:02:20 15628 -30212 60 T -0.3188 1.0774 5.1S 7.1W 71 346 264 07m01s 03776 -0425 May 12 00:29:44 15382 -29989 60 T -0.2467 1.0782 2.4N 122.2W 76 349 260 07m12s 03818 -0407 May 22 07:55:23 15140 -29766 60 T -0.1732 1.0779 9.4N 123.7E 80 352 256 07m13s 03860 -0389 Jun 02 15:19:08 14902 -29543 60 T -0.0980 1.0769 15.9N 10.8E 84 355 250 07m04s 05057 0114 May 22 03:32:43 9318 -23322 78 T -0.2684 1.0753 4.6N 165.8E 74 353 253 07m06s 05101 0132 Jun 01 10:57:16 9143 -23099 78 T -0.1932 1.0775 10.9N 52.8E 79 357 255 07m14s 05145 0150 Jun 12 18:23:03 8970 -22876 78 T -0.1187 1.0787 16.5N 59.7W 83 1 256 07m13s 05187 0168 Jun 23 01:48:53 8797 -22653 78 T -0.0441 1.0792 21.3N 171.4W 88 6 256 07m03s 05543 0327 Jun 06 06:52:21 7295 -20687 81 Tm -0.0413 1.0810 20.5N 106.6E 88 347 261 07m03s 05583 0345 Jun 16 14:18:48 7126 -20464 81 T -0.1162 1.0811 17.0N 4.8W 83 352 263 07m17s 05623 0363 Jun 27 21:46:29 6956 -20241 81 T -0.1899 1.0804 12.7N 117.1W 79 357 264 07m24s 05664 0381 Jul 08 05:17:09 6787 -20018 81 T -0.2612 1.0788 7.6N 129.1E 75 1 264 07m22s 05705 0399 Jul 19 12:51:41 6617 -19795 81 T -0.3290 1.0764 2.0N 13.7E 71 5 262 07m11s 06396 0681 May 23 07:58:17 3965 -16309 87 T -0.3538 1.0797 1.2N 81.3E 69 345 274 07m10s 06440 0699 Jun 03 15:24:55 3785 -16086 87 T -0.4291 1.0792 2.2S 31.3W 65 349 282 07m17s 06483 0717 Jun 13 22:52:28 3641 -15863 87 T -0.5035 1.0779 6.5S 144.6W 60 353 291 07m15s 06526 0735 Jun 25 06:19:09 3497 -15640 87 T -0.5781 1.0756 11.9S 101.7E 55 357 300 07m02s 07226 1044 May 29 16:06:22 1367 -11819 112 T -0.5525 1.0775 11.1S 56.0W 56 359 300 07m12s 07270 1062 Jun 09 23:34:05 1278 -11596 112 T -0.4793 1.0781 5.2S 170.1W 61 3 287 07m20s 07314 1080 Jun 20 07:00:13 1188 -11373 112 T -0.4047 1.0779 0.2S 77.0E 66 7 275 07m18s 07359 1098 Jul 01 14:28:20 1098 -11150 112 T -0.3320 1.0768 3.8N 35.8W 71 11 263 07m05s 09369 1937 Jun 08 20:41:02 24 -774 136 T -0.2253 1.0751 9.9N 130.5W 77 0 250 07m04s 09410 1955 Jun 20 04:10:42 31 -551 136 T -0.1528 1.0776 14.8N 117.0E 81 5 254 07m08s 09450 1973 Jun 30 11:38:41 44 -328 136 T -0.0785 1.0792 18.8N 5.6E 86 9 256 07m04s 09847 2150 Jun 25 00:17:25 287 1861 139 T -0.0910 1.0802 18.3N 178.0E 85 356 260 07m14s 09889 2168 Jul 05 07:45:23 330 2084 139 T -0.1660 1.0807 13.2N 66.2E 81 0 264 07m26s 09933 2186 Jul 16 15:14:54 377 2307 139 T -0.2396 1.0805 7.4N 46.6W 76 4 267 07m29s 09978 2204 Jul 27 22:44:32 425 2530 139 T -0.3129 1.0793 1.0N 160.2W 72 8 269 07m22s 10022 2222 Aug 08 06:17:05 476 2753 139 T -0.3837 1.0774 6.0S 84.8E 67 11 270 07m06s 10711 2504 Jun 14 01:31:03 1428 6239 145 T -0.4278 1.0769 1.9S 167.1E 65 352 275 07m10s

TD of Catalog Calendar Greatest Luna Saros Ecl. Ecl. Sun Sun Path Central Number Date Eclipse ΔT Num Num Type Gamma Mag. Lat. Long. Alt Azm Width Dur. s ° ° ° ° km 10752 2522 Jun 25 09:03:45 1506 6462 145 T -0.4991 1.0769 6.6S 53.3E 60 356 287 07m12s 10793 2540 Jul 05 16:34:26 1585 6685 145 T -0.5722 1.0760 12.4S 60.8W 55 1 300 07m04s 11564 2867 Jun 23 09:57:35 3371 10729 170 T -0.4622 1.0766 4.1S 42.6E 62 6 279 07m10s 11611 2885 Jul 03 17:29:55 3488 10952 170 T -0.3905 1.0777 0.1N 70.7W 67 10 272 07m11s 11658 2903 Jul 16 01:00:45 3608 11175 170 T -0.3177 1.0780 3.4N 177.0E 71 14 265 07m04s ----- 3973 Jul 13 18:54:49 14304 24409 197 T -0.2416 1.0769 7.3N 42.4W 76 4 256 07m12s ----- 3991 Jul 25 02:29:22 14545 24632 197 T -0.3124 1.0781 1.1N 156.3W 72 7 266 07m18s ----- 4009 Aug 04 10:00:56 14788 24855 197 T -0.3853 1.0785 5.9S 89.8E 67 11 274 07m12s ----- 4921 Aug 08 16:28:39 29688 36135 231 T -0.1310 1.0772 7.7N 58.0E 83 12 252 07m03s

The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates. The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions ). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

- pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
- 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
- future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

[1] Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. (See: Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses)

[2] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

[3] Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon's shadow strikes the Earth's surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

[4] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon's shadow passes closest to the Earth's center. For total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path.

Special thanks to **Dan McGlaun** for extracting the individual eclipse maps from the
*Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000* for use in this catalog.

The Besselian elements used in the predictions were kindly provided by **Jean Meeus**.
All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.
Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in
*Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000*

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"