Annular Solar Eclipses with Durations Exceeding 11m 00s

-3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE )

Introduction

Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon's penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth's surface thereby producing an eclipse. Not all New Moons result in a solar eclipse because the Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's about the Sun. Consequently, the Moon's shadows miss Earth at most New Moon's. Nevertheless, there are 2 to 5 solar eclipses every calendar year. There are four types of solar eclipses: partial, annular, total and hybrid[1]. For more information, see Basic Solar Eclipse Geometry.


Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE)

During the 10 Millennium period -3999 to 6000 ( 4000 BCE to 5999 BCE[2]), Earth will experience 23740 solar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Solar Eclipses: -3999 - 6000
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 23740100.0%
PartialP 8383 35.3%
AnnularA 7881 33.2%
TotalT 6326 26.6%
HybridH 1150 4.8%

Annular and total eclipses can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes during the 60th century CE appears in the following three tables (no Hybrids are included since all are central with two limits).

Annular and Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All 14207100.0%
Central (two limits) 13851 97.5%
Central (one limit) 180 1.3%
Non-Central (one limit) 176 1.2%
Annular Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Annular Eclipses 7881100.0%
Central (two limits) 7621 96.7%
Central (one limit) 131 1.7%
Non-Central (one limit) 129 1.6%
Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All Total Eclipses 6326100.0%
Central (two limits) 6230 98.5%
Central (one limit) 49 0.8%
Non-Central (one limit) 47 0.7%

Long Annular Solar Eclipses

The longest central[3] solar eclipses of this period are:

          Longest Total   Solar Eclipse:    2186 Jul 16      Duration = 07m29s
          Longest Annular Solar Eclipse:    0150 Dec 07      Duration = 12m23s
          Longest Hybrid  Solar Eclipse:    5963 Aug 16      Duration = 01m52s

Long Annular Solar Eclipses are relatively rare. The following catalog lists concise details and local circumstances for all Annular Solar Eclipses with durations exceeding 11m 00s. The Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses contains a detailed description and explanation of each item listed in the catalog. For eclipses from -1999 to +3000, the Catalog Number in the first column serves as a link to a global map of Earth showing the geographic visibility of each eclipse. The date and time of the eclipse are given at the instant of greatest eclipse[4] in Terrestrial Dynamical Time. The Saros Number in the sixth column links to a table listing all eclipses in the Saros series. The Key to Solar Eclipse Maps explains the features plotted on each map.

The data presented here are based in part on the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000.



Catalog of Long Annular Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000


                      TD of
Catalog  Calendar   Greatest          Luna Saros Ecl.           Ecl.                Sun Sun  Path Central
Number     Date      Eclipse     ΔT    Num  Num  Type  Gamma    Mag.   Lat.   Long. Alt Azm Width   Dur.
                                  s                                      °      °    °    °   km

----- -3478 Dec 08  15:42:55  86400 -67743  -33   A    0.6051  0.9188  18.6N  49.8W  53 190  385  11m02s
----- -3460 Dec 18  23:27:45  85992 -67520  -33   A    0.5913  0.9204  15.2N 169.7W  54 186  373  11m10s
----- -3442 Dec 30  07:04:48  85406 -67297  -33   A    0.5711  0.9227  12.1N  71.8E  55 182  356  11m04s
----- -3178 Oct 23  07:53:28  77052 -64034  -27   A    0.1400  0.9160   5.7N  25.0E  82 198  322  11m13s
----- -3160 Nov 02  15:53:53  76497 -63811  -27   A    0.1388  0.9155   1.1N  98.1W  82 197  324  11m26s
----- -3142 Nov 13  23:55:05  75944 -63588  -27   A    0.1385  0.9158   3.1S 138.8E  82 196  323  11m35s
----- -3124 Nov 24  07:52:34  75393 -63365  -27   A    0.1349  0.9167   7.2S  16.7E  82 193  319  11m36s
----- -3106 Dec 05  15:47:42  74844 -63142  -27   Am   0.1294  0.9184  10.8S 104.6W  83 190  312  11m29s
----- -3088 Dec 15  23:36:27  74296 -62919  -27   A    0.1181  0.9207  14.2S 136.0E  83 186  302  11m10s
----- -2036 Nov 25  07:56:41  45846 -49908    0   A    0.4438  0.9152   7.2N 100.0W  64 202  356  11m02s

----- -2018 Dec 06  15:55:26  45418 -49685    0   A    0.4490  0.9159   5.2N 137.6E  63 198  355  11m23s
----- -2000 Dec 16  23:49:28  44992 -49462    0   A    0.4578  0.9172   4.2N  16.5E  63 193  352  11m36s
00043 -1982 Dec 28  07:38:06  44567 -49239    0   A    0.4710  0.9191   4.2N 103.2W  62 189  346  11m38s
00086 -1963 Jan 07  15:19:18  44145 -49016    0   A    0.4901  0.9215   5.4N 138.8E  61 185  340  11m26s
00724 -1709 Nov 10  22:19:39  38395 -45864   25   A    0.6325  0.9133  25.1N  12.8E  51 195  423  11m10s
00768 -1691 Nov 21  06:20:30  38003 -45641   25   A    0.6297  0.9131  21.7N 111.1W  51 192  424  11m40s
00812 -1673 Dec 02  14:21:47  37613 -45418   25   A    0.6274  0.9135  18.9N 125.0E  51 188  423  12m00s
00852 -1655 Dec 12  22:17:54  37226 -45195   25   A    0.6207  0.9147  16.4N   2.5E  52 184  414  12m07s
00893 -1637 Dec 24  06:11:25  36840 -44972   25   A    0.6119  0.9165  14.4N 119.4W  52 179  401  11m58s
00934 -1618 Jan 03  13:57:11  36456 -44749   25   A    0.5961  0.9190  12.6N 120.9E  53 175  382  11m34s

01530 -1355 Oct 27  15:05:56  31072 -41486   31   A    0.1429  0.9180   1.0S  83.0E  82 196  314  11m10s
01572 -1337 Nov 07  23:04:53  30720 -41263   31   A    0.1379  0.9176   5.3S  38.8W  82 194  316  11m24s
01615 -1319 Nov 18  07:06:24  30370 -41040   31   A    0.1346  0.9178   9.1S 160.8W  82 191  315  11m29s
01659 -1301 Nov 29  15:08:25  30021 -40817   31   A    0.1315  0.9188  12.2S  77.2E  83 188  311  11m26s
01703 -1283 Dec 09  23:10:06  29675 -40594   31   A    0.1275  0.9205  14.7S  44.3W  83 184  303  11m11s
02897 -0780 Nov 28  23:34:55  20825 -34373   49   A    0.2693  0.9212   5.0S  87.1W  74 186  310  11m17s
02938 -0762 Dec 10  07:38:16  20536 -34150   49   A    0.2654  0.9206   7.1S 150.7E  75 182  312  11m29s
02980 -0744 Dec 20  15:38:37  20250 -33927   49   A    0.2595  0.9207   8.6S  29.4E  75 178  311  11m27s
03023 -0726 Dec 31  23:33:25  19966 -33704   49   A    0.2491  0.9215   9.5S  90.3W  76 173  306  11m10s
04216 -0231 Nov 19  09:31:09  12944 -27583   58   A    0.4864  0.9150   8.5N  98.3E  61 199  366  11m19s

04256 -0213 Nov 30  17:32:23  12736 -27360   58   A    0.4916  0.9148   7.0N  23.9W  61 195  370  11m47s
04297 -0195 Dec 11  01:33:19  12530 -27137   58   A    0.4971  0.9153   6.3N 146.0W  60 191  370  12m04s
04339 -0177 Dec 22  09:33:34  12326 -26914   58   A    0.5030  0.9165   6.4N  92.1E  60 186  367  12m08s
04383 -0158 Jan 01  17:29:28  12125 -26691   58   A    0.5128  0.9184   7.4N  28.9W  59 182  361  11m55s
04426 -0140 Jan 13  01:20:54  11926 -26468   58   A    0.5265  0.9208   9.6N 148.8W  58 178  352  11m26s
05013  0096 Nov 04  00:44:00   9489 -23539   83   A    0.5836  0.9159  19.8N 147.1W  54 193  392  11m18s
05058  0114 Nov 15  08:41:03   9313 -23316   83   A    0.5746  0.9149  16.3N  91.1E  55 189  395  11m53s
05102  0132 Nov 25  16:42:02   9139 -23093   83   A    0.5691  0.9144  13.6N  31.5W  55 185  396  12m16s
05146  0150 Dec 07  00:43:01   8965 -22870   83   A    0.5630  0.9147  11.6N 154.0W  56 181  393  12m23s
05188  0168 Dec 17  08:45:18   8792 -22647   83   A    0.5579  0.9156  10.3N  83.3E  56 176  387  12m14s

05228  0186 Dec 28  16:44:33   8620 -22424   83   A    0.5496  0.9173   9.6N  38.6W  57 172  375  11m49s
05269  0205 Jan 08  00:40:31   8449 -22201   83   A    0.5386  0.9196   9.4N 159.5W  57 167  359  11m09s
07183  1025 Nov 23  03:59:16   1459 -12048  107   A    0.1758  0.9211  11.5S 124.5E  80 184  303  11m14s
07225  1043 Dec 04  12:01:48   1370 -11825  107   A    0.1691  0.9196  13.4S   3.8E  80 179  309  11m28s
07269  1061 Dec 14  20:03:51   1280 -11602  107   A    0.1623  0.9187  14.3S 116.5W  81 175  312  11m29s
07313  1079 Dec 26  04:06:10   1190 -11379  107   A    0.1559  0.9185  14.4S 123.1E  81 170  313  11m18s
07713  1238 Dec 08  05:02:16    627  -9413  110   A    0.0988  0.9175  17.9S 107.1E  84 188  315  11m23s
07758  1256 Dec 18  13:04:38    576  -9190  110   A    0.1055  0.9172  17.5S  12.8W  84 184  317  11m39s
07802  1274 Dec 29  21:04:54    529  -8967  110   A    0.1138  0.9175  16.2S 132.3W  84 179  316  11m44s
07845  1293 Jan 09  05:03:32    482  -8744  110   A    0.1233  0.9185  13.9S 108.4E  83 175  312  11m36s


Catalog of Long Annular Solar Eclipses: -3999 to 6000


                      TD of
Catalog  Calendar   Greatest          Luna Saros Ecl.           Ecl.                Sun Sun  Path Central
Number     Date      Eclipse     ΔT    Num  Num  Type  Gamma    Mag.   Lat.   Long. Alt Azm Width   Dur.
                                  s                                      °      °    °    °   km

07887  1311 Jan 20  12:57:37    445  -8521  110   A    0.1365  0.9200  10.6S  10.2W  82 171  306  11m18s
08483  1574 Nov 13  15:12:17    123  -5258  116   A    0.5970  0.9171  14.8N  40.0W  53 197  387  11m03s
08524  1592 Dec 03  23:07:16    113  -5035  116   A    0.6102  0.9159  14.5N 160.2W  52 193  401  11m36s
08564  1610 Dec 15  07:06:48     99  -4812  116   A    0.6195  0.9153  14.7N  78.2E  52 188  409  11m56s
08608  1628 Dec 25  15:08:47     84  -4589  116   A    0.6265  0.9153  15.4N  44.0W  51 184  413  12m02s
08653  1647 Jan 05  23:10:59     50  -4366  116   A    0.6336  0.9161  16.9N 166.5W  51 179  413  11m50s
08699  1665 Jan 16  07:11:51     31  -4143  116   A    0.6420  0.9174  19.1N  71.2E  50 175  409  11m24s
09284  1901 Nov 11  07:28:21     -0  -1214  141   A    0.4758  0.9216  10.8N  68.9E  62 190  336  11m01s
09327  1919 Nov 22  15:14:12     21   -991  141   A    0.4549  0.9198   6.9N  48.9W  63 186  341  11m37s
09370  1937 Dec 02  23:05:45     24   -768  141   A    0.4389  0.9184   4.0N 167.8W  64 182  344  12m00s

09411  1955 Dec 14  07:02:25     31   -545  141   A    0.4266  0.9176   2.1N  72.2E  65 178  346  12m09s
09451  1973 Dec 24  15:02:44     44   -322  141   A    0.4171  0.9174   1.1N  48.5W  65 174  345  12m02s
09490  1992 Jan 04  23:05:37     58    -99  141   A    0.4091  0.9179   1.0N 169.7W  66 169  340  11m41s
09529  2010 Jan 15  07:07:39     66    124  141   A    0.4002  0.9190   1.6N  69.3E  66 165  333  11m08s
-----  3043 Dec 23  13:45:49   4609  12912  168   A    0.2835  0.9201   6.9S   6.5W  74 185  316  11m35s
-----  3062 Jan 02  21:43:43   4746  13135  168   A    0.2965  0.9184   5.5S 125.5W  73 181  324  11m59s
-----  3080 Jan 14  05:43:42   4885  13358  168   A    0.3078  0.9174   3.4S 114.8E  72 176  330  12m09s
-----  3098 Jan 24  13:45:55   5027  13581  168   A    0.3172  0.9170   0.7S   5.6W  72 173  332  12m05s
-----  3116 Feb 05  21:46:51   5170  13804  168   A    0.3276  0.9173   2.7N 126.0W  71 169  332  11m48s
-----  3134 Feb 16  05:46:01   5316  14027  168   A    0.3394  0.9182   6.8N 113.9E  70 166  329  11m21s

-----  3407 Jan 01  22:17:56   7760  17402  193   A    0.7368  0.9155  24.1N 130.2W  42 170  473  11m13s
-----  3425 Jan 12  06:15:52   7938  17625  193   A    0.7234  0.9144  23.6N 108.8E  43 165  467  11m11s
-----  3742 Dec 10  09:47:39  11402  21557  199   A    0.2425  0.9238   8.7S  78.0E  76 179  296  11m03s
-----  3760 Dec 20  17:32:23  11617  21780  199   A    0.2178  0.9218  10.8S  37.1W  77 175  303  11m12s
-----  3779 Jan 01  01:23:21  11834  22003  199   A    0.1982  0.9204  11.6S 153.6W  79 170  307  11m10s
-----  4885 Jan 20  18:21:06  28992  35683  226   A    0.5845  0.9202  16.0N  23.0E  54 174  372  11m08s
-----  4903 Feb 02  02:18:24  29334  35906  226   A    0.6010  0.9181  19.6N  96.8W  53 170  387  11m05s
-----  5779 Jan 14  09:53:11  48380  46740  260   A    0.3917  0.9235   2.1N 127.4W  67 176  314  11m11s
-----  5797 Jan 24  17:38:43  48822  46963  260   A    0.4188  0.9214   5.9N 116.9E  65 173  327  11m18s
-----  5815 Feb 06  01:30:09  49266  47186  260   A    0.4412  0.9199  10.1N   0.4W  64 169  337  11m14s

-----  5833 Feb 16  09:26:13  49712  47409  260   A    0.4597  0.9189  14.5N 119.0W  63 166  345  11m01s


Calendar

The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates. The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions ). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..


Predictions

The coordinates of the Sun used in these predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.


Footnotes

[1] Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. (See: Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses)

[2] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

[3] Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon's shadow strikes the Earth's surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

[4] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon's shadow passes closest to the Earth's center. For total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path.


Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Dan McGlaun for extracting the individual eclipse maps from the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 for use in this catalog.

The Besselian elements used in the predictions were kindly provided by Jean Meeus. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Some of the information presented on this web site is based on data originally published in Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Jean Meeus (NASA's GSFC)"


Eclipse Links

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses

Ten Millennium Catalog of Long Solar Eclipses

Catalog of Solar Eclipse Saros Series

World Atlas of Solar Eclipse Paths

2007 May 11